Geology gives us a time record of the development of Mother Earth, from the first of the planet formation to the present. In the present, we can look at the characteristics of the formations at coastal Maine, where the sliding friction of plate movement caused by continental drift produced temperatures high enough to result in rock reformation (metamorphic rocks), and compare that to Texas geology where sedimentary processes produced long, thin layers of rock, and finally we have an example of a what is likely a plutonic rock, picked up in Southeastern Oklahoma, which shows the result of time related sea level movement and animal tracks. These differences can provide physical references which we can use to compare and project future trends. Additionally, a link is given to the outdoor museum at Baylor University in Waco, Texas where prehistoric wooly mammoths and camels and elephants and other animals died seeking water.
It will be apparent that I am not neither a geologist nor a biologist, at best I am an interested amateur. A reader interested in more in-depth information should consult one of the technical references listed.